The majority of the toxic substances and medications are beneficial or lethal, depending on the dose and the field is applied. Such is the case of botulinum toxin, which is listed as the poison more potent of the few known, and at the same time is a method of cosmetic of proven efficacy.
The botulinum toxin
Botulinum toxin is a protein molecular complex, synthesized by the bacterium “Clostridium Botulinum.” Chemically it is composed by two chains (one heavy and one light), which are joined together by a disulfide bridge. This protein is the active ingredient in botox, the application is performed using a non-invasive procedure in the contour of eyes and lips, forehead, eyebrows and neck. The treatment should be administered by qualified medical professionals experienced and accredited.
Mechanism of action
Both the brain and the spinal cord generate electrical impulses that spread through the peripheral nervous system. The neuromuscular junction is an intermediate zone between the peripheral nerves and muscles. It releases a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which produces the muscle contraction. The botulinum toxin blocks this substance, temporarily paralyzing the muscle response.
Application of the botox
Before the intervention should be performed a general examination of the patient, and an Electromyogram or EMG. This test identifies the muscles that exhibit hyperactivity, and the extent of the same.
The treatment is performed by using a hypodermic needle, very fine. Does not require local anesthesia is sufficient with the application of a topical anesthetic. Then mark the areas that are going to be treated and determines the appropriate dose of toxin.
The number of injections varies depending on the area. The muscle in the front controls the movement of the eyebrows and the forehead skin. At this point we inject the botox in 3-5 side points, spaced 1.5 cm
In the area between the eyebrows are done 5 injections: 1 central in the muscle procerus, 2 sides to the edge of the orbicularis muscle, and 2 other muscle in the brow ridge.
The contraction of the orbicular muscle of the eyelid causes wrinkles known as“crow’s feet”. To delete them, perform 3 infiltrations, 1 cm apart between a fold and the other. At higher doses, problems can develop diplopia (paralysis of the eyelid).
The upper lip can also be infiltrated to prevent its contraction. In this case, inject 2-5 units of botox in each hemilabio.
The neck area tends to be wrinkles in the form of two parallel lines, caused by contraction of the platysma muscle. To eliminate them is absorbed in 4 or 5 points on the line.
People with excessive fatty tissue and deep wrinkles respond worse to the treatment, so it is recommended to complement it with facial fillers. The results are seen after three or four days and remain for approximately six months. Usually, the treated muscle tends to reduce its contraction, so that the wrinkles are diminished in the long term.
The side effects of botox are rare. Sometimes it can appear swelling, facial stiffness or bruising in the areas infiltrated. What is common is that these symptoms returned after a few days. The treatment should be avoided in pregnant women, during lactation, and in patients who have coagulopathies or are taking treatments blood thinners.